Alternative education

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The terminology associated with 'alternative education' is very confusing and problematic.

Confusions in communication and terminology are perhaps the most difficult hurdles 
for discussing educational alternatives. All too frequently, we use the same words 
to describe different things, or different words to describe the same thing.
                                                                     Martin (2000)

Martin's (2000) paper provides a useful overview of alternative educational approaches.

Click here for three lists of keywords related to alternative education or here to go to the education systems index.


Martin, Robin Ann (2000) Paths of Learning: An introduction to educational alternatives, website or PDF (visited 30-May-05)

Useful links

The National Coalition of Alternative Community Schools (
NCACS aims to represent all those involved in alternative education, including home schoolers, private and public alternative schools, and individual lifelong learners. (Visited 30-May-05)

Alternative Education Resource Organization (
AERO is an organization dedicated to the development and improvement of education alternative on an international scale.

Survey and analysis of alternative education programs (
Two surveys are presented in this paper, one of teachers and one of administrators, and the resulting analysis provide baseline data and opinions regarding Pennsylvania programmes.

Kendall, Sally; Kinder, Ray; Halsey, Karen; Fletcher-Morgan, Charlotte; White, Richard; Brown, Celia (2003). An Evaluation of Alternative Education Initiatives. Research Report no. 403. DfES
This report presents the findings from a study commissioned by the Home Office and the then DfEE, evaluating alternative educational provision for young people permanently excluded from school, or who were out of school for other reasons, such as non-attendance. Six alternative education initiatives (AEIs) were selected for involvement in the study.'alternative%20education'

Reimer, Mary S.; Cash, Terry (2003). Alternative Schools: Best Practices for Development and Evaluation. Effective Strategies for School Improvement. Alternative Schooling. ERIC Report ED481475
An overview of important factors to consider for those seeking new approaches to education of all children in alternative learning environments.